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Update

Update
CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 24, 2018 08:59 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2771
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 17462 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 23, 2018 09:01 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2770
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 22704 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 22, 2018 09:00 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2769
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 24056 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 21, 2018 02:55 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3466
Valid From: 2018 Apr 20 0032 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Apr 21 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 21, 2018 01:06 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2768
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2622 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 21, 2018 05:55 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3465
Valid From: 2018 Apr 20 0032 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Apr 21 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 08:26 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2767
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1199 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 07:39 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2018 Apr 20 1938 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 05:29 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3464
Valid From: 2018 Apr 20 0032 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Apr 21 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 05:27 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1469
Valid From: 2018 Apr 20 0510 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Apr 21 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 03:36 PM UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Apr 21: G1 (Minor) Apr 22: None (Below G1) Apr 23: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 10:45 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3463
Valid From: 2018 Apr 20 0032 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Apr 20 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 10:45 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1468
Valid From: 2018 Apr 20 0510 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Apr 20 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 10:45 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2018 Apr 20 1044 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0900-1200 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 09:53 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2018 Apr 20 0953 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0900-1200 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 08:26 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2018 Apr 20 0825 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0600-0900 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 07:14 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2018 Apr 20 0714 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Apr 20 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 06:51 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2018 Apr 20 0650 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0600-0900 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 05:58 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2018 Apr 20 0558 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 05:12 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3462
Valid From: 2018 Apr 20 0032 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Apr 20 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 05:11 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2018 Apr 20 0510 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Apr 20 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 03:00 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2018 Apr 20 0259 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 20, 2018 12:33 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Apr 20 0032 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Apr 20 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 19, 2018 06:16 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2766
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 3739 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 18, 2018 02:30 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2765
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4586 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 17, 2018 01:23 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2764
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4590 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 16, 2018 11:41 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2763
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 6482 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 15, 2018 12:46 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2762
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 8730 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 14, 2018 09:01 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2761
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 21456 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 13, 2018 08:59 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2760
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 25452 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Apr 13, 2018 12:40 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2018 Apr 13 0040 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 13, 2018 12:23 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Apr 13 0025 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Apr 13 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 12, 2018 09:00 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2759
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 11644 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 12, 2018 07:42 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Apr 12 0741 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Apr 12 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 11, 2018 08:59 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2758
Begin Time: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2761 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 11, 2018 08:55 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3458
Valid From: 2018 Apr 09 2130 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Apr 11 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: Apr 11, 2018 03:02 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2018 Apr 11 0259 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Apr 11, 2018 01:35 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2018 Apr 11 0135 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Apr 11 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 10, 2018 11:54 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3457
Valid From: 2018 Apr 09 2130 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Apr 11 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 10, 2018 06:32 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2018 Apr 10 1830 UTC
Station: GOES15


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 10, 2018 01:53 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3456
Valid From: 2018 Apr 09 2130 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Apr 10 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Apr 10, 2018 07:02 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2018 Apr 10 0702 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Apr 10 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 10, 2018 05:52 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3455
Valid From: 2018 Apr 09 2130 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Apr 10 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Apr 9, 2018 11:35 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2018 Apr 09 2335 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Apr 10 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Apr 9, 2018 09:52 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2018 Apr 09 2151 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Apr 9, 2018 09:31 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Apr 09 2130 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Apr 10 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: Apr 8, 2018 04:34 PM UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Apr 09: None (Below G1) Apr 10: G1 (Minor) Apr 11: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: Apr 8, 2018 05:04 AM UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Apr 09: None (Below G1) Apr 10: G1 (Minor) Apr 11: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 3, 2018 02:57 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2756
Begin Time: 2018 Mar 16 0105 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2152 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 2, 2018 12:26 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2755
Begin Time: 2018 Mar 16 0105 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2532 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Apr 1, 2018 02:10 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2754
Begin Time: 2018 Mar 16 0105 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 6573 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Mar 31, 2018 01:37 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2753
Begin Time: 2018 Mar 16 0105 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 11531 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: Mar 30, 2018 09:35 AM UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2018 Mar 30 0757 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 493 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Mar 30, 2018 08:59 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2752
Begin Time: 2018 Mar 16 0105 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 35131 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Mar 29, 2018 08:59 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2751
Begin Time: 2018 Mar 16 0105 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 43688 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Mar 28, 2018 08:59 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2750
Begin Time: 2018 Mar 16 0105 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 42355 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Mar 27, 2018 08:59 AM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2749
Begin Time: 2018 Mar 16 0105 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 16460 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Mar 27, 2018 03:04 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Mar 27 0305 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Mar 27 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Mar 26, 2018 01:20 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2748
Begin Time: 2018 Mar 16 0105 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 5329 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Mar 26, 2018 05:41 AM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 3452
Valid From: 2018 Mar 25 2122 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2018 Mar 26 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: Mar 25, 2018 09:49 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2018 Mar 25 2150 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Mar 26 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: Mar 25, 2018 09:36 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2018 Mar 25 2136 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: Mar 25, 2018 09:23 PM UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2018 Mar 25 2122 UTC
Valid To: 2018 Mar 26 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: Mar 25, 2018 03:32 PM UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 2747
Begin Time: 2018 Mar 16 0105 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 1838 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

Table

Date Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Sunspot number Sunspot area 10E-6 New regions GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Flares
X-ray Optical
C M X S 1 2 3
Mar 25, 2018 68 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mar 26, 2018 68 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mar 27, 2018 68 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mar 28, 2018 69 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mar 29, 2018 69 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mar 30, 2018 69 11 10 1 A0.0 1 0 0 4 0 0 0
Mar 31, 2018 69 12 10 0 A2.0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Apr 01, 2018 69 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Apr 02, 2018 68 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 03, 2018 68 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
Apr 04, 2018 69 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 05, 2018 66 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 06, 2018 67 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 07, 2018 67 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 08, 2018 68 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 09, 2018 69 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 10, 2018 69 0 0 0 A0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 11, 2018 68 0 0 0 A1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 12, 2018 70 13 30 1 A1.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 13, 2018 70 14 30 0 A2.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 14, 2018 70 11 10 0 A1.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 15, 2018 71 0 0 0 A1.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 16, 2018 69 0 0 1 A1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 17, 2018 69 0 0 0 A1.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 18, 2018 71 0 0 0 A2.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 19, 2018 71 14 20 1 A3.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 20, 2018 73 14 40 0 A5.7 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Apr 21, 2018 77 34 120 1 A6.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Apr 22, 2018 76 20 130 0 A5.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 23, 2018 74 22 80 0 A4.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Average/Total 70 6 16 5 1 0 0 11 0 0 0

Summary graph

Flares

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

K-indices



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Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Date A K-indices (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
Mar 26, 2018 12 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3
Mar 27, 2018 9 3 3 3 2 2 1 0 1
Mar 28, 2018 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
Mar 29, 2018 4 0 0 1 2 1 2 1 1
Mar 30, 2018 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Mar 31, 2018 7 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
Apr 01, 2018 5 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1
Apr 02, 2018 5 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1
Apr 03, 2018 4 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 04, 2018 5 0 1 1 2 2 2 1 2
Apr 05, 2018 9 3 2 1 1 1 3 3 2
Apr 06, 2018 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
Apr 07, 2018 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2
Apr 08, 2018 5 1 2 0 1 1 2 2 2
Apr 09, 2018 11 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 4
Apr 10, 2018 18 2 4 4 3 3 3 2 3
Apr 11, 2018 14 5 4 4 2 2 0 1 2
Apr 12, 2018 9 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3
Apr 13, 2018 9 4 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
Apr 14, 2018 6 2 2 0 1 2 2 2 2
Apr 15, 2018 6 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2
Apr 16, 2018 3 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1
Apr 17, 2018 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2
Apr 18, 2018 6 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1
Apr 19, 2018 3 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 0
Apr 20, 2018 47 4 5 6 6 4 4 5 3
Apr 21, 2018 12 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 1
Apr 22, 2018 5 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2
Apr 23, 2018 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
Apr 24, 2018 5 1

Middle Latitude

Date A K-indices
Mar 26, 2018 10 3 3 3 2 1 2 2 2
Mar 27, 2018 7 3 2 3 2 2 1 0 1
Mar 28, 2018 2 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0
Mar 29, 2018 3 0 0 1 1 1 2 1 1
Mar 30, 2018 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1
Mar 31, 2018 6 3 2 2 2 2 1 0 1
Apr 01, 2018 4 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1
Apr 02, 2018 4 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 1
Apr 03, 2018 3 1 2 2 1 0 1 1 0
Apr 04, 2018 4 0 0 1 2 2 2 1 2
Apr 05, 2018 8 2 2 1 1 2 3 3 2
Apr 06, 2018 3 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 1
Apr 07, 2018 4 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 2
Apr 08, 2018 5 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
Apr 09, 2018 11 2 1 3 2 2 2 3 4
Apr 10, 2018 14 2 4 4 2 3 2 2 3
Apr 11, 2018 12 4 3 4 2 2 0 1 2
Apr 12, 2018 8 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 2
Apr 13, 2018 8 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
Apr 14, 2018 6 1 1 0 1 3 2 2 2
Apr 15, 2018 5 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1
Apr 16, 2018 3 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 0
Apr 17, 2018 3 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
Apr 18, 2018 6 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1
Apr 19, 2018 2 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 0
Apr 20, 2018 29 3 4 6 4 4 3 4 3
Apr 21, 2018 10 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 2
Apr 22, 2018 5 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2
Apr 23, 2018 6 2 2 1 2 3 0 2 1
Apr 24, 2018 1

High Latitude

Date A K-indices
Mar 26, 2018 22 3 3 2 6 4 3 2 2
Mar 27, 2018 20 3 3 3 5 5 3 0 0
Mar 28, 2018 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0
Mar 29, 2018 3 0 0 0 3 2 0 1 0
Mar 30, 2018 3 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 1
Mar 31, 2018 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 0 1
Apr 01, 2018 3 1 0 2 2 2 0 1 0
Apr 02, 2018 2 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 0
Apr 03, 2018 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0
Apr 04, 2018 6 0 0 0 4 3 1 0 0
Apr 05, 2018 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 0
Apr 06, 2018 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
Apr 07, 2018 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
Apr 08, 2018 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Apr 09, 2018 12 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 3
Apr 10, 2018 34 3 4 5 4 6 5 3 3
Apr 11, 2018 22 4 4 6 4 2 1 1 1
Apr 12, 2018 11 2 1 3 4 3 2 1 2
Apr 13, 2018 9 3 2 3 3 3 0 1 1
Apr 14, 2018 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0
Apr 15, 2018 6 1 1 3 2 3 1 0 0
Apr 16, 2018 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
Apr 17, 2018 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
Apr 18, 2018 8 1 1 2 3 4 2 1 0
Apr 19, 2018 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
Apr 20, 2018 56 1 5 7 7 4 5 4 3
Apr 21, 2018 28 3 2 5 5 5 5 2 1
Apr 22, 2018 5 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1
Apr 23, 2018 5 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 2
Apr 24, 2018 0

About

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Data source: NOAA, Wikipedia

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